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                                                                     14.     ENGLISH GRAMMAR

                                                                                        IN USE

                                                                      FOR INTERMEDIATE STUDENTS



1. Why are you always so rude to me? (=always) - Why are you being so rude to me today? (=now)

2. You always come in time (= positive). - You are always forgetting to bring your pen (=negative).

3. She was out of breath. She had been running (= a period of activity in the past).

4.We might as well walk (=могли бы с таким же успехом).

5.He was able (managed) to escape (=unusual).He could swim well (=usual).

6.How long have you been learning English? (=activity). How long have you known each other? (=state).

7. I have done a lot of work recently, in the last few days, so far, since breakfast (= Use Present Perfect –not Past Simple).

8. He used to smoke a lot (=бывало прежде). - I’m used to living alone (=привык).

9. I’m seeing my doctor tomorrow (not- I see).

10. We are going to be late (= something negative-да, мы так опоздаем).

11. Before, after, as soon as, until   you (NO WILL) arrive in London.

12. You could have got that job (= past) - You could get this job (=now).

13.They must have gone out. She might not have seen you. You needn’t have taken the umbrella. You should have done it (=everything in the past).

14. It’s essential that you should be here. Should something happen, let me know (= formal style).

15. You had better stop interrupting me. It’s high time he came from school(=давно пора).

16.If you would call a doctor, I would be grateful to you(=very politely).

17.I wish I didn’t have to work(=now).- I wish I hadn’t eaten too much cake(= past).If the weather hadn’t been so bad, we would have gone  out(=past). I wish you were here(= state). I wishyou would come (=action).

18.I have read the book. - The book has been read (=Pr.Perf. in Passive). - The book is being read (=Pr.Cont. in Passive).

19. They went to the party without being invited.

20. He is alleged (thought, believed, considered, reported, known, expected, understood) to have kicked the policeman (= in the past). You were supposed to clean the windows.

21. I have repaired my car. - I have my car repaired (by somebody). I had my money stolen.

22. I told her I didn’t have any money (= in the moment of speech). - She said that John had given up his job (before the moment of speech). I told him not to shout.

23. Do youknow where she is? -He asked me where she was. Jim asked me why I had not come the day before (NOT yesterday).

24. “I’m feeling tired.” “So am I.” “I never read newspapers.” “Neither do I.”

25.”Will you be at home tomorrow morning?” “I think so, I expect so, I suppose so, I hope so, I guess so, I’m afraid so or I don’t think so, I don’t expect so, I don’t suppose so (I suppose not), I hope not, I guess not, I’m afraid not.

26. Let’s go home, shall we? Open the door, will you? I’m late, aren’t I? Don’t be late, will you? You are not going out today, aren’t you? No (= I’m not going out), Yes (= I’m going out).

27. I enjoy dancing. Would you mind closing the door? Ian suggested going to the cinema. VERB+ ing = stop, finish, delay, postpone, fancy, imagine, consider, avoid, admit, deny, miss, risk, involve, practice, give up, put off, carry on , go on, keep on. She denied that (suggested that, admitted that) John had stolen the money.

28. VERB + to = We offer to, agree to, refuse to, decide to, plan to, arrange to, hope to, aim to, learn to, deserve to, afford to, forget to, attempt to, manage to, fail to, promise to,  threaten to do it ( not to do it) .

29. VERB + that NOT VERB + to = enjoy, think, suggest. Are you thinking of buying a car? VERB+ to do (to be doing, to have done)= seem, appear, tend, pretend, claim = I pretended to read ( to be reading, to have read) thenewspaper.

30.  VERB + (OBJECT) + to = I want (you) to do your lessons.( expect, ask, beg, help, mean, would like, would prefer would love, would hate). VERB+ OBJECT + to = They tell me to do it as soon as possible (order, remind, warn, force, invite, enable, persuade, teach, get). VERB+ ing (without an object) or VERB + object + to = I wouldn’t recommend staying in thathotel. -OR – I wouldn’t recommend anybody to stay in that hotel ( advise, encourage, allow, permit, forbid).

31. I remember (regret) doing something (=in the past). I remember (regret) to do something (= now or in the future). I regret saying what I said. I shouldn’t have said it. We regret to inform you that we are unable to offer you the job. Go on doing something (= continue to do the same thing). The minister went on talking for two hours. Go on to do something (= do or say something new. After discussing the economy the minister went on to talk about foreign policy.

32. Try to do something (= make an effort to do it for some time).I tried to study well, but it was toodifficult for me. We tried to put the fire out, but we were unsuccessful. Try doing something (= to do something as an experiment or test). The door wouldn’t open soI tried turning the key the other way. The TV picture wasn’t good, so I tried moving the aerial.

33. I need to do something = it’s necessary for me to do it. I need to take more exercise. I don’t need to come to the meeting, do I? (Something needs doing = something needs to be done). The grass in the yard needs cutting. The room needs cleaning.The problem needs to be solved.

34. I can’t help doing something (= I can’t stop myself from doing it). She tried to be serious, but she couldn’t help laughing. They were talking so loudly that I couldn’t help overhearing them. I can’t help feeling sorry for him.

35. I’d rather you came with us. I’d rather come with you.

36. Are you looking forward to seeing Ann? Are you used to driving fast? She doesn’t approve of (me) gambling. Do you feel like going out tonight? I congratulated him on passing the exam. I was accused of telling lies.Nobody suspected the man of being a spy. What prevented him from coming here?

37. It’s no use worrying about it. It’s not worth reading this book. Was the film worth seeing? I had difficulty finding a place to live. It’s a waste of money buying things you don’t need. He was busy repairing his car. Would you like to go swimming (fishing, climbing, skiing, jogging, sightseeing, sailing)?

38. It’s difficult to understand him. = He is difficult to understand (other adjectives: easy, hard, impossible, dangerous, safe, expensive, cheap, nice, interesting, exiting). It’s silly of Mary to give up her job ( other adjectives: kind, clever, sensible, mean, stupid, careless, unfair, considerate).

39. She is sure (certain, likely, bound) to arrive in Moscow.

40. You are the first (the next, the last, the only) person to tell meabout it.

41. I’m afraid to take this test (= risky action), because I’m afraid of failing (=bad result). I’m afraid to eat it, because I’m afraid of making myself ill. I’m sorry for bothering you yesterday - I’m sorry to disturb you now.

42. I saw Annwaiting for a bus. The missing boys were last seen playing near the river. Feeling tired, I went to bed early. Having finished her work, she went home.

43.Ihave few friends so I feel lonely (=unsatisfied). I have a few friends and we keep a good company (= satisfied). There is little water in the pondso we can’t swim. There is a little water in the pond so we can swim. We have only a little time and only a few hundred euros, so we can’t afford this tour.

44. Did you hear a noise just now? – I can’t work here. There is too much noise. I’ve bought   a paper to read. – I need some paper to write on. There is a hair in my soup. – You’ve got very long hair. You can stay with us.There is a spare room. – I can’t sit here. There isn’t room. Have a good time.  – I can’t wait. Ihaven’t time. This furniture is mine. It’s good news. It’s bad advice. I’m looking for a job. I’m looking for work. The police are looking for a thief. Have you obtained all the necessary permission?

45. Platform 5, room 126, page 29, section A.

46. I don’t go to school at weekend.- Alice’s mother often goes to the school to see Alison’s teacher. Ken’s brother is in prison for robbery. – Ken went to the prison to visit his brother. Jack was taken to hospital. - Jill has gone to the hospital to visit him. After leaving school, I want to go to university. – Excuse me, where is the university, please? Mrs. Kelly goes to church every Sunday. – The workmen went to the church to repair the roof. Keith is a seaman. He often goes to sea. – I’d like to live near the sea. He prepared the bed and went to bed.

47. Russia – The Russian Federation. President Clinton – The President of the United States.  Mount Everest. – The Alps. The (river) Thames. – Lake Baikal. Madagascar. – The Bahamas. The North of France – Northern France.

48. NO ARTICLE: Union Street, Broadway, BlackrockRoad, Times Square, Hyde Park, Waterloo Bridge, Victoria Station, Westminster Abbey, Edinburgh Castle, Buckingham Palace, London Zoo, Canterbury Cathedral, Fiat, Kodak, British Airways.

49. The Hilton Hotel, the Bombay Restaurant, the Red Lion (pub),the National  Theatre, the Odeon cinema, the Sahara desert, the Gulf of Mexico, the University of London ( London University), The Tower of London, the Great Wallof China..

50. A means of transportation, a television series, a species ofbird.

51. Twenty thousand pounds was stolen. Three years is a long time. Six miles is a long way.

52. A three –hour journey– three weeks’ holiday. Jack and Jill’s wedding. The horse’s tail - The garage door.

53. They first looked at themselves in the mirror and then at each other. He cut himself (=he did it) when he was shaving being at home by himself (on his own) (= alone). 54. It was the time whenpeople lived in caves (it was – это был). – There was a time when people lived in caves (there was –было, имелось).

55.”Who saw it?” “None (not any) of us.” “How much money have you got?” “None.” None of this money is mine. Nobody phoned, did they? No one in the class did their work.

56. We have a lot (plenty) of time (NOT – much or many in positive sentences).

57. All cars have wheels. – All of the cars in the parking are foreign-made. Some people are very lazy. – Some of the people I work with are very lazy. Most tourists don’t visit this part of the town. – Most of the tourists from Russia go to Turkey.

58. There are two good hotels in the town. You can stay at either of them. - There are many good hotels in the town. You can stay at any of them. We tried two hotels. Neither of them had any rooms. Both of them were full. – We tried a lot of hotels in the town. None of them had any rooms. All of them were full.

59. They are at home all day (NOT -all the day).- They are at home all the time ( NOT- every time). I read the whole book – I read all the book. I spent all day (= the whole day) on the beach.

60. You should answer each question in this test andremember that every sentence in English must have a predicate.

61. Everything that happened wasmy fault. – What happened was my fault (what = everything that). Do you know the woman (who, that) Tom is talking to (NOT which)? Do you know who Tom is talking to? Mr. Carter, to whom I spoke on the phone last night, is very interested in our plan. - Fortunately, we had a map, without which we would have been lost. Sheila didn’t go to the party, which (= about the subject) was a pity as we lacked her. – Sheila didn’t go to the party that (= about the object) was a pity, because there was no dancing there.

62. I’m bored (interested, satisfied, depressed, disappointed, shocked) with my job, because it’s boring (interesting, satisfying, depressing, disappointing, shocking).

63. In the kitchen there was a beautiful (Opinion)  big (how Big)round(what Form) old (how Old)  yellow(what Colour) Chinese ( where From) wooden (what’s Made of) table (= O  BFOCFM). A small black metal box, an interesting old Frenchpainting, beautiful long black hair.

64. He is a friendly (lively, elderly, lonely, silly, lovely - adjectives) man. Tom is a careful driver. – Tom drives a car carefully. She speaks perfect English. – She speaks English perfectly.

65. He comes home late lately. He hardly works hard. Your English is good. You speakEnglish well.

66. The book was so good. – It was such a good book. He is quite intelligent, but rather lazy. You are quite right (wrong).  Do you want to hear any further news about my elder (older) brother? He is five years older (NOT elder) than me.  The younger you are, the easier it is to learn.

67. Petrol is twice (three times) as expensive as it was a few years ago. Chinaproduces three times as much as Russia does. It was most generous of you.

68. My parents are both teachers. They have always lived in London. Your car has probably been stolen.

69. Even though she has acar, she never gives me a lift, even if I ask her. In spite of (despite) the rain, they enjoyed themselves. – Although it rained, they enjoyed themselves.

70. We’ll buy some food (now) in case Tom comes. – We’ll buy some food if (when) Tom comes. In the case of emergency telephone thisnumber. I’ll keep silence, unless you want me to speak. – I’ll keep silence provided (providing, as long as) you don’t ask me.

71. As the day went on, the weather got worse. When I got home, I hada bath (NOT – as).  As they live near me, I see them quite often. You should have done it like this (as I showed you). During the war this hotel was used as a hospital. -  This hotel is like a hospital now.Everybody is ill. I regard her as my best friend. They treat me as if I were (was) their own son.

72. I’ll be working until 11.30.I’ll have finished my work by 11.30. At sunset, at lunchtime, on Christmas Day, on Fridays, on Friday morning, at the weekend, at present, in three weeks’ time, at the same time.

73. What time (NOT at) are you going out this evening? Be on time. Don’t be late. We were just in time to catch the train (= в последний момент). At the end (at the beginning) of the month – In the end (or at first) we sold our old car.

74. In a photo ( picture), at the end of the street, at the bottom (top) of the page, at reception, on the menu, on a list, on the way to, on the back of the envelope, at the back of the house, in the back of the car.

75. At sea, at the station, at the airport, at the headquarters, on a bus (a bicycle, a plane, a train, a ship), by bus (bicycle, car), in a car (a taxi).

76. To get into/out of the car, to get on / off a bus, a plane, atrain. To arrive in a country (city) – to arrive at a party (a meeting, work, the hotel).

77. We went on holiday, on business, on a trip, on a cruise. On television, on the radio, on the phone. They are on strike, on a diet .The car is on fire. On the whole (in general) I enjoy my job. I did it on purpose (by mistake, by accident, by chance. We write in ink (in biro, in pencil). You should write it in words (in figures, in BLOCK LETTERS). I paid the bill in cash (by check, by credit card).

78. Jill left school at the age of 16. The train was travelling at 120 miles an hour. His salary has increased by 10% .Roger won by about five metres.

79. A check for 1 000 000 dollars. A demand for computers. Do you know the reason for the delay of the train? The cause of the explosion. An increase in, a decrease in, a rise in, a fall in prices. I had to pay for the damage to the other car. A solution to the problem, a key to the door, an answer to the question a reply to a letter, a reaction to an article, an attitude to (towards) the matter.

80. It’s generous ( kind, good ,polite, silly, stupid )  of you to say so.  They have always been cruel (friendly, polite) to me. Don’t be angry (annoyed, furious) about it. Are you angry with him for doing it?

81. I’m exited (worried, upset, nervous, happy) about it. I’m delighted (pleased, satisfied, disappointed) with the situation .We are surprised (shocked, amazed, astonished) at/by the news. I’m impressed with/by her English. I’m fed up/bored with it. I’m sorry about the noise last night. I’m sorry for doing it. I feel sorry for him.

82. I’m frightened (terrified, scared) of it. She is fond (proud, ashamed, jealous, envious) of us. We are suspicious (critical, tolerant,) of his intentions. Are you aware (conscious capable, incapable) of it? He is short of money. It’s typical of you. I’m tired of waiting. 83. We are certain (sure) of/about his guilt. Ann is good (bad, excellent, brilliant, hopeless) at math. He is married (engaged) to an Englishman. Your handwriting is similar to mine.  Mary is keen on gardening. I don’t want to be dependent on my parents. The city centre is crowded with tourists. Florence is famous for its art treasures. Who is responsible for all this noise?

84. She stared (glanced) at me. They laughed at me. Don’t point (aim) the knife at me. Never shoot (fire) at animals. He shouted at his son. - Shout to your Dad so that he can hear you. - Don’t throw stones at the dog. Better throw some food to it. Can you explain it to me? Let me explain (describe) to you what I saw. He apologised to us and asked for money.

85. You should do something about it. I don’t care about (=worry) my future profession. I don’t care what to do in the future. Would you care for (=like) a cup of coffee? I don’t care for hot weather. Take care of youself.

86. I applied to the company for a job, but they couldn’t offer anything. I have searched the house for my key, but couldn’t find it. He left for work at 8 a.m. She is too little. She needs somebody to look after her.

87. I dreamt about you last night.– I dream of being rich. I wouldn’t dream of telling anyone what you said. Did you hear about the fight in the club last night? (= news). Have you heard of holographic television? (= existence) .Have you heard from John recently? (=letters).

88. What are you thinking about? I can’t think of the book I read last (=remember).I don’t think much of him (=opinion). I’m glad you reminded me about the meeting (=not to forget). This woman reminds me of my grandmother (= looks like). We complained to the manager of the restaurant about the food. What do you complain of? (=doctor).

89.She accused (suspected) me of being selfish. Do you approve of her behavior?  What did he die of? What does it consist of? You should pay the waiter for the meal. Don’t forget to pay a bill (a fine, a tax, a fare, a rent). Forgive them for what they did. Everybody blamed her for the accident. – She was to blame for the accident – Everybody blamed the accident on her.

90. She hasn’t got enough money to live on .I congratulate you on your birthday and compliment you on your studying. What do you believe (specialise, succeed) in?

91. Our house was broken into a few days ago, but nothing was stolen. Have you ever seen a car crash (drive, bump, run) into the wall?   

Can you divide (split, cut) the apple into three parts?

92. I can translate it from Russian into English. Collide, fill,provide, supply somebody with something. What do you spend your money on?

93. We couldn’t get on the bus and it drove off the bus stop. My car broke down. Look out! There is a car coming. I was nervous as the plane took off.94. How was the exam? How did you get on? My English is not very good, but it’s enough to get by (= to manage). You are walking too fast. I can’t keep up with you. Are you looking forward to your holiday? Jack is trying to cut down on smoking (= to reduce). Could you fill in the form? When will you throw away the party?

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