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                                           15. ADVANCED GRAMMAR IN USE.


1. Performance verbs not used in Continuous: accept, acknowledge, admit, advise, apologise, assume, deny, guarantee, hope, inform, predict, promise, recommend, refuse, suggest, suppose, warn.  He admits now that he isn’t so strong as he used to be (NOT he is admitting). - 2. State verbs not used in Continuous: agree, believe, belong, contain, consist, cost, disagree, enjoy, feel, hate, have, hope, know, like, look, love, own, prefer, realise, regret, resemble, smell, taste. I really enjoy travelling (NOT I’m enjoying).

3. I’m beginning to realise the difference between them (NOT I begin- emphasizing the process). Other verbs: gather, hear, see, understand.

4. King serves to the left hand court and Adams makes a wonderful return. She is playing magnificent tennis this match (NOT She plays- stressing the background of the situation).

5. You are constantly (always, continually, forever) forgetting things (= we are angry about it).

6. They had been travelling for about three hours (=how long) before they arrived there. They had already been there for three times (= how many times). When we met them, they had been riding (=after they had finished). – When we met them, they were riding (= at that moment).

7. After (before, until, as soon as, if, unless, provided, in case, when) you come there (NOT you will come), I’ll phone you.- 8. I’ll tell you about it later. – I will be telling you about it in my next lecture (= stressing future activity). Will you come to the concert (= invitation). - Will you be coming to theconcert (=previous arrangement). 9. ‘Mum! Sue won’t give me back my pencil case (= doesn’t want to). The key won’t fit thelock (= it doesn’t work as it should). 10. I used to visit Switzerland very often when I was at university in France. - I visited Switzerland four times during the 1970s (NOT used to visit – certain time in the past).

11. He can’t come now, because he is ill (= he certainly won’t come). - He may (might) not come now, because he is ill (= there is a chance that he won’t come). - The profits of the company might well reach100 million dollars this year (=high possibility).

12. He must do it (= now or in the future). - He must have done it (= in the past). I needn’t cook dinner yesterday, because I went to the party (= I didn’t cook it). – I needn’t have cooked dinner yesterday .Just as I had cooked it, my friend invited me to a restaurant (= I cooked it).

13. He seems / appears (to be) very nervous (happy, glad, angry and so on). – He seems to be alive (alone, awake, asleep) (NOT he seems alive).

14. The traffic lights turned/went green (NOT got green). - The children went crazy at the party. The food went mouldy. My computer has gone wrong again. The phone line suddenly went dead. He went bold before he was thirty. The jewels went missing from the shop (= undesirable changing). 

15. He became an adviser to the US government (=new post).He turned sixty last year (= age).

In my dream all the sheep turned into wolves (= transfiguration). I eventually came/grew to appreciate his work (= gradual change).

16. I have got/ have a car (= possession). I have got/ have a friend (=relationship). – I had a friend (NOT had got – Past). Have+NOUN (NOT have got): I have an argument (a sleep, a chat, a dance, an effect, a fall, a meal, a quarrel, a say, something to eat, a talk, a word, a wash) (= process).

17. Take + NOUN: to take a message, a breath, a care, a chance, a decision, a dislike, a photograph, a power, a responsibility, a risk, a trouble. 

18. Do+ NOUN: to do business, damage, exercise, (somebody) a favor, (no) good, housework, an injury, a job, research, cleaning, gardening, shopping, washing (up).

19. MAKE+ NOUN: to make a noise, an offer, an announcement, an application, an arrangement, an attempt, a choice, a comment, a contribution, a decision, a difference, a discovery, an enquiry, an excuse, a habit of doing something, a list, a journey, a mistake, money, a ( phone) call, a plan, a point, a promise, a remark, a sound, a speech, a suggestion, a prime-minister( teacher and so on), a footstool ( to serve for something).                                   


20. VERB + OBJECT+ OBJECT or VERB+OBJECT+PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT. She handed me the plate. =She handed the plate to me. = I was handed the plate. = The plate was handed to me. Other verbs with two passive forms: give, lend, offer, promise, sell, teach, tell, throw.

21. VERB+OBJECT+PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT (only). He described the situation to me (NOT He described me the situation). =The situation was described to me (NOT I was described the situation). Other verbs: demonstrate, explain, introduce, mention, repeat, suggest.

22. VERB+VERB+ing + OBJECT (NOT VERB + to-infinitive + OBJECT).I enjoyed taking the children to the ZOO (NOT I enjoyed to take…). = The children enjoyed being taken to theZOO. Other verbs: avoid, consider, delay, deny, describe, imagine, remember, resent.

23. VERB+OBJECT+ VERB+ing (Not VERB+ OBJECT+ to-infinitive).They saw him climbing over the fence (NOT They saw him to climb…). = He was seen climbing over the fence. Other verbs: bring, catch, discover, hear, find, keep, leave, notice, observe, overhear, send, show, spot, watch.

24. VERB + OBJECT+VERB+ing (ONLY in ACTIVE).I appreciated you coming to see me (NOT You were appreciated). Other verbs: anticipate, dislike, dread, forget, hate, imagine, like, (not) mind, recall, remember.

25. VERB+to-infinitive+ OBJECT. His colleges started to respect Tim= Tim started to be respected by his colleges. Other verbs with corresponding meaning in active and passive: appear, begin, come, continue, seem, tend. I hoped to help her. - She hoped to be helped by me. Other verbs without corresponding meaning in active and passive: agree, aim, attempt, refuse, struggle, try.

26. VERB+OBJECT+to-infinitive (NOT VERB+ to-infinitive) with passives.Mother taught Peter to read (NOT taught to read). =Peter was taught to read. Other verbs with passives: advise, allow, ask, believe, call on, command, compel, consider, expect, encourage, feel, instruct, invite,  mean, order, persuade, recommend, remind, report, require, request, tell, understand, urge, warn. -I want you to be here (NOT You are wanted to be here). Other verbs without passives: (can’t) bear, hate, like, love, need, prefer, wish.-

We waited for the taxi to come (NOT We waited the taxi). Other verbs with for: appeal, apply, arrange, complain, long(=want), plan.   

27. Reporting with passive verbs (It + PASSIVE VERB+ that-clause). It is reported that the finance minister is to resign. Other verbs: acknowledge, see, agree, allege, announce, assume, calculate, claim, consider, decide, declare, discover, estimate, expect, feel, find, know, mention, propose, recommend, say, show, suggest, suppose, think, understand. NOT It is informed that we are going to have a test tomorrow. Other verbs NOT used in  It + PASSIVE VERB+ that-clause: persuade, reassure, remind, tell, warn.

28. It + PASSIVE VERB+ that-clause OR  It + PASSIVE VERB + to-infinitive.

It was agreed that the meeting would be postponed. = It was agreed to postpone the meeting. Other verbs: decide, forbid, hope, plan, propose.

29. It + PASSIVE VERB+ that-clause OR  SUBJECT + PASSIVE VERB+ to-infinitive.

It was expected that the damage would be expensive. = The damage was expected to be expensive.  The only verbs NOT used in this pattern: agree, announce, decide, mention, propose, recommend, suggest (NOT The problem was agreed to do something about).

30. VERBS used with OBJECTS ONLY( transitive verbs): see, describe, arrest, avoid, do , enjoy, find, force, get, give, grab, hit, like, pull, report, shock, tell, take, touch, want, warn. He took my book (NOT He took).  

31. VERBS NOT used with OBJECT (intransitive verbs): arrive, appear, come, cough, fall, go, happen, matter, sleep, swim, wait. He coughed (He coughed to me).

32. VERB+to-infinitive. The shop refused to accept the check. (NOT the shop refused me to …). Other verbs: threaten, agree, consent, decide, fail, hope, pretend, start, volunteer.

33. VERB+OBJECT+bare infinitive. She noticed him run away from the house (NOT Shenoticed him to run away). Other verbs: make, feel, hear, observe, overhear, see, watch, have, let (BUT He was overheard to talk about it).

34. VERB+to-infinitive (NOT –ing). I asked him to tidy up the room (NOT I asked him tidying up). Other verbs: agree, aim, decline, demand, fail, hesitate, hope, hurry, manage, offer, plan, prepare, refuse, want, wish.

35. VERB+VERB+ing (NOT to-infinitive). I admitted going to the night club yesterday (NOT I admitted to go). Other verbs: avoid, consider, delay, deny, detest, dread, envisage, feel like, finish, imagine, miss, recall, resent, risk, suggest.

36. VERB+ to-infinitive or VERB+ing. They continued to play/playing. Other verbs: advice, begin, cease, start, continue.

37. VERB+ to-infinitive or VERB+ing (with different meaning). After some years they came to accept her as equal (=gradual change). – He came hurrying up the path (=the way of moving). After the interval Pavarotti went on to sing an aria from Tosca (= a change in activity). - Meanwhile, Pavarotti went on singing an aria from Tosca (= the same activity). I meant to phone you last night (=intention). - Working at your English everyday means investing into your future (= result).  I regret/remember doingsomething (=in the past). - I regret/ remember to do something (=now). Stop doing something (=break up your activity). - Stop to do something (=stop moving to do something else). Try to do something (= for some time). - Try doing something (= as an experiment).

38. VERB+ (OBJECT) + VERB+ ing. They can’t stand (him) driving so fast. Other verbs: remember, detest, dislike, dread, envisage, hate, imagine, like, love, mind (in negatives and questions), miss, recall, regret, resent, risk, start, stop. 

39. VERB+ (NO OBJECT) +VERB+ing. Despite his injury he continued playing (NOT his playing). Other verbs: enjoy, admit, advise, consider, delay, deny, deserve, escape, face, finish, forget, propose, put off, suggest.

40. Whether to do it or not. = Whether or not to do it. =If to do it or not (NOT If or not to do it). 

41. VERB+OBJECT+for+OBJECT.  I have booked a room for you (NOT to you). Other verbs: build, buy, catch, choose, cook, fetch, find, make, order, pour, save, collect, mend, raise.

42. VERB+OBJECT+to+OBJECT. He has given a lesson to me (NOT for me). Other verbs: award, hand, lend, offer, owe, pass, show, teach, tell, throw.

43. VERB+OBJECT+to/for+OBJECT.He played a piece of music to/ for me. Other verbs with to/for: leave, pay, post, read, send, sing, take, write.

44. We all envied him his lifestyle (NOT …his lifestyle to/for him). Other verbs: allow, ask, cost, deny, forgive, guarantee, permit, refuse. – He explained the procedure to me (NOTexplained me…).Other verbs: confess, admit, announce, demonstrate, describe, introduce, mention, point out, prove, report, say, suggest.  

45. ‘I didn’t go to school today,’ said Ann (= Ann said) (NOT said she). She didn’t think it was good (NOT She thought it wasn’t good). Other verbs: believe, expect, feel, intend, plan, propose, suppose, want.

46. I agree (that) it was his fault. Other verbs: mention, notice, promise, say, think. - I complain that it was his fault (NOT complain it washis fault). Other verbs: confide, deny, grumble, speculate, warn, answer, argue, reply. – I felt (that) the results were satisfactory = I felt the results to be satisfactory. Other verbs: declare, acknowledge, assume, believe, consider, expect, find, presume, report, think, understand.

47. I notified the bank that I had changed my address (NOT notified that, NOT notified to thebank). Other verbs: assure, convince, inform, persuade, reassure, remind, tell.

I promise (you) that I’ll do it (NOT promise to you). Other verbs: show, teach, advise, warn.

 She admitted (to me) that she was seriously ill (NOT She admitted me).Other verbs: announce, complain, confess, explain, indicate, mention, point out, propose, recommend, report, suggest.

48. I agreed (with Susan) that she was right (NOT agreed Susan). Other verbs: argue, check, confirm, disagree, plead.

49. I begged (of him) that he should listen to me. = I begged him to listen to me (NOT I begged him that…). Other verbs: ask, demand, require. He told me that (NOT he told that). –She said (to me) that I was wrong (NOT She said me). – They admit (deny, report, mention) hearing it (OR that they heard it). 

50. VERB+to-infinitive (NOT VERB+OBJECT+to-infinitive) with offerings, suggestions.

She offered to take me to town (NOT She offered me to take). Other verbs: propose, agree, demand, guarantee, hope, promise, swear, threaten, volunteer, vow, long, offer, plan, refuse. I asked to tell him the truth. - I asked him to tell me the truth.

51. VERB+ that-clause OR VERB + to-infinitive. He claimed to be innocent. = He claimed that he was innocent. Other verbs: agree, demand, expect, guarantee, hope, promise, request, vow.

52. VERB+that-clause (NOT VERB + to-infinitive). The team captain said that I had to play in goal (NOT …said to play). Other verbs: advise, insist, order, suggest. - They have proposed that I should move to their London office. Other verbs with should before THAT: think, suggest, agree, direct, report, urge, insist, ask, beg, command, demand, instruct, intend, order, request, require, stipulate, warn.

53. Was their applause long? (NOT applauses). Is their evidence persuasive? (NOT Are their evidences?). Isn’t the scenery nice? (NOT Are the sceneries nice?).- Nouns used in plural meaning ONLY: police, staff, politics, statistics, economics. The police are on alert now.

54. I don’t think any of them know (OR knows) where the money is hidden. Other subjects: each of, either of, neither of, none of + a singular or a plural verb. - A number of refugees have been turned back at the border (NOT has been turned).  Other subjects: a/the majority, a lot of, plenty of, all (of) + plural noun. BUT: The number of books in the library has risen to five millions (NOT have risen). 55. Either the principal or the teachers are (NOT is) to attend the meeting. - Either the teachers or the principal are (OR is) to attend the meeting.

56. Philip’s car. - Jones’ car (OR Jones’s). Boys’ boots, goat’s cheese, duck’s eggs, cow’s milk. - Lamb chops, chicken drumsticks (NOT lamb’s chops-killed animals).

57. English has become the international language of business (=unique). She’s beenappointed (the) head of the company (=unique). – I’m a manager of the company (= one of many). - Some 80% of those eligible took part in the vote (= approximately). - The novel is the mostpopular form of fiction writing (OR Novels are). – Reading a novel is very relaxing (OR Reading novels). The (a) computer is an important research tool (=general class OR individual item). That’s not the Stephen Fraser I went to school with.

58. I’ve got a lot (plenty) of friends (NOT many- affirmative).We are all going to Athens (NOT We all are). All (of) their hard work was of no use (NOT Their all). I don’t agree with all that he said (= everything). All (that) she wants is help (=what she wants). Neither of them knows the truth (NOT Both of them don’t know).

59. Every woman complained that she (OR they) had been unfairly treated.-Every villager complained that they (NOT he or she) had been unfairly treated. You’ve eaten all the apples (OR every apple) in the house.-There is no sugar in the kitchen (OR There is none in thekitchen).

60. This is the book which/that (NOT who) I like very much. – This is the man who/that (NOT which) I like very much.There are ten students in the group, three of whom(NOT which-people) are very lazy.- There are three chairs in the room, all of which (NOT whom-not people) are very small. Other words: both, each, many, most, neither, none, part, some and superlatives- the best, the biggest and so on).

61. Whoever (= general) wins will go on to play Barcelona. - Whichever one of you (=particular) broke the window will have to pay for it. 63. He was pleased with himself (NOT with him). Other verbs: be ashamed of, believe in, care about, do with, hear about, look after (at), take care of.

64. D’you likethese kittens. I mean those grey ones (NOT those ones). –‘I want you to readthis book.’-‘I intend to’ (NOT I intend). Other verbs with to: mean, advise (+noun), be able, choose, deserve, fail, hate, hope, need, prefer.-Choose whatever you like (NOT you like to). 

65. The high price surprised him. = The price was high. - The horse was alone (NOT The alone horse). Other adjectives never used BEFORE the nouns they describe: afraid, alight, alike, alive, ashamed, asleep, awake, aware, (un)well, content, fine, glad, ill, poorly, sorry, (un)sure, upset.   

66. It was a nuclear explosion (NOT The explosion was nuclear).  Other adjectives never used AFTER the nouns they describe: atomic, cubic, digital, medical, phonetic, chief, entire, initial, main, only, whole, eventual, occasional, northern (etc.), maximum, minimum, underlying, absolute, complete, mere, utter.

66. I was asked for my present address (=current). - All the people present (=who were there) approved of the decision. I’d like to thank all the people concerned (=involved) for thecontribution they have made. - Concerned (= worried) workers went on strike. All thestudents involved (=in the project) should stay after the lecture. - It’s a really involved (=difficult) problem, but we must solve it.The building opposite (=in front of) the church is the bank. - The opposite (=against each other) armed forces were ready to fight. People responsible (= in charge) for the meeting should stay. - The responsible people (=high rank officials) should serve the nation.

67. Extremely angry, deeply important, rather young. Other adverbs used with gradable adjectives: fairly, hugely, immensely, pretty, really, reasonably, slightly, very. Other gradable adjectives: angry, big, comfortable, common, happy, quiet, rich, strong.

68. Absolutely useless, completely impossible, really awful. Other adverbs used with ungradable adjectives: pretty, simply, totally, utterly. Other ungradable adjectives: amazed, dreadful, furious, huge, invaluable, terrible, wonderful.

69. He did it in a cowardly manner/ way/fashion. Other adjectives ending in –ly: daily, friendly, kindly, lively, lonely. – The train goes direct (= without stopping) to London directly (= right now). She hardly (= unlikely) worked hard last year.She freely (= willingly) gives me her time free (=for no money). – He often comes home late lately (=recently). - They think highly (= appreciate) of her high-healed shoes.- The mankind will shortly(=soon) be short(= lack) of oil.- The policy of wide-open(=completely) doors was widely(=everywhere) criticized. His job was good, he did it well.          

70. My watch was among the things taken (NOT taken things). Other participles like this: applying, caused, found, provided, used. – Rub the infected area (OR the area infected) with this cream. Other participles like this: affected, broken, chosen, identified, interested, remaining, resulting, stolen.  

71. I’m alarmed with this alarming news. Amazed-amazing, bored-boring, exited-exiting, frightened-frightening, pleased-pleasing, surprized-surprizing, tired-tiring, worried-worrying.

72. The President is answerable to the nation for his deeds. I’m anxious about (=worried) you. - I’m anxious for (=want) you to have only good marks. She felt good about (=pleased) winning the prize. You were very good to me (=kind). He is very good with his hands (= skillful). I’m a little concerned about your exam results (= worried). This section of the book is concerned with adjectives (= about). I’m sorry for Susan. - I’m sorry about giving her such a hard time. It was unfair of you to do it.-It was unfair on us to be treated like that.

73. She was as patient a teacher as anyone could have had. How interesting a lesson did she give you? It’s not so straightforward a problem as you think.

74. Next to the bookshelf was a fireplace (NOT a fireplace was).Other verbs used before nouns: hang, lie, live, sit, stand, come, fly, go, march, roll, run, swim, walk.  

75. I very much agree with the decision (NOT I very agree).Other verbs with very much: doubt, fear, hope, like, want. We (very) much enjoyed having you stay with us (NOT very enjoyed). Other verbs with (very) much: admire, appreciate, regret. She was very disturbed to hear the news (NOT very much disturbed). It was very disappointing (NOT very much disappointing).  The new bypass was (very) much needed (NOT very needed).

76. Comment adverbs: apparently, certainly, clearly, definitely, in theory, obviously, presumably, probably, undoubtedly. To my disappointment (surprise, astonishment). To be frank (honest, truthful, fair). Oddly/curiously/funnily/strangely enough. To put it simply/bluntly/ briefly/ mildly.

77. The concert had hardly/scarcely/no sooner begun, before all the lights went out. As/when/while Dave was eating, the doorbell rang (=As/when/while + a longer event + a shorter event). - They where playing in the garden, when (NOT as/while) they heard a noise (= A longer event + when + a shorter event). – As (NOT when/while) the cheese matures, itflavour improves (= two things change together).  

78. I did it (so as) to (= in order to) help you. – I did it so as/in order not to help you (NOT not to help you). - I did it not to help you, but to make you work on yourown.  

79. She bought the car, although/ though she was too young to learn to drive. - I’ve beenlearning English for a long time. I don’t speak English well, though (NOT although- two sentences). 

80. Although/though the night air was hot, they slept soundly. - Hot though (NOT although) the night air was, they slept soundly. Extraordinary though it may seem, London had less rainthan Rome. Other verbs with inversion: appear, become, look, prove.

81. Even though, Tom doesn’t speak Spanish (NOT even although), I think, he should still visit Madrid (=Tom doesn’t speak Spanish). - Even if Tom doesn’t speak Spanish, I think, he should visit Madrid (= whether or not he speaks Spanish).

82. In spite of/despite playing with ten men, we won easily (NOT despite/in spite of we played). – In spite of/ despite the fact that we played

83. If you had asked me for help, I would have come, of course (= past). Had they not rushed Dan to hospital, he would have died (=past). If it wasn’t/weren’t for Vivian, the conferencewouldn’t be going (= now). - If it hadn’t (=Had it not) been for my parents, I wouldn’t have gone to university (=past). = But for my parents…  

84. If you will take your seats, ladies and gentlemen, we shall begin the meeting (=polite addressing). - If you would take your seats… (=more polite form). If he comes (NOT will come)… 85. Unless it rains (=if it doesn’t rain), I’ll pick you up at 6.00 (=real conditional, NOT Unless it will rain…). He would be happier if he didn’t take things so seriously (=unreal conditional, NOT unless he took…). I’ll be amazed if Christine doesn’t win (=emotion, NOT unless Christine wins). If you don’t pass the test, what will you do? (=question, NOT unless you pass…).

86. I didn’t know whether or not Tom was coming/if Tom was coming or not. You should consider/advise/decide whether (NOT if) to go there (= if you should…). There was disagreement as to/ about whether he was eligible to be reelected. Other nouns: discussion, doubt, question, uncertainty.- 87. While understanding her problem, I don’t know how to help her. Other prepositions: after, before, besides, by, in, on, since, through, with, without.

88. Even though much of the power of the trade unions has been lost, their politicalinfluence shouldn’t be underestimated (=one sentence). - Much of the power of the trade unions hasbeen lost. Even so, their political influence shouldn’t be underestimated (NOT Even though – two sentences).

89. Connecting ideas between sentences or clauses: however, nevertheless, on the  other hand, on the contrary, though, alternatively, instead, after all, in any case, in(by) contrast, otherwise, even so, therefore, consequently, hence, thus, so, as a result, , soon, then, afterwards, after that, before that, subsequently. -90. Connecting ideas within a sentence: although, though, even though, while, yet, whereas, because, since, as, in order to, before, after.

91. We stopped at Milan, Florence and Pisa on our way to Rome (= points of the journey). - We spent our holidays in Milan (= within the city). I’m in Manchester now as a tourist. - I’m at Manchester (university) now studying linguistics. We arrived in Moscow. - We arrived at the party/station/ conference. In the corner of the room. - On the corner of the street. I live in Fleet Street. - I live at 5 Fleet Street. - 92. Mike lives in the house across/over the road from ours. - He suddenly saw Sue across the room (NOT over the room – flat surface). The programme was broadcast across Australia. - The programme was broadcast all over the world (=right across). Across the field (2 dimensions).  – Through the forest (3 dimensions).

93. Over/above the door was a picture. The castle is above the town (NOT over). - The sun was over the plane (NOT above). The chair is below (NOT under) the window-sill. - The radiator is under the window-sill (NOT below).

94. He is over the hill (= rather old). She is over the moon (= very happy). I’m under the weather now (=not well). The cat is getting under my feet (= prevents me to walk). Don’t try to pull the wool over my eyes (don’t lie me).

95. I stayed in Paris for 5 years. - I studied French during (NOT for) my staying there.

96. I had no money to give him except (for) the few coins I had in my pocket (money=coins). - I had nothing in my pocket except for (NOT except) the few coins in my pocket (nothing=\=coins). We’ve cleaned all the rooms in the flat except (for) the kitchen (kitchen=room). We’ve cleaned the whole flat except for (NOT except) the kitchen (flat=/=kitchen).  

 97. I don’t enjoy watching any sports except (for)/apart from cricket (= I enjoy only cricket). – Besides football I enjoy playing volleyball as well (=I like football and volleyball). Apart from cricket I enjoy watching football and basketball (=besides/as well as).

98. Comment on the situation (NOT Comment the situation). Other verbs with ON: concentrate, focus, insist, reflect (think).

99. She succeeded by sheer willpower (=action). I had to open the bottle with a screwdriver (=instrument). Common expressions with BY: by mistake, by accident, by phone, by car, by bus, by air/road/rail/land/sea, by cheque/credit card, by degrees, by stages, by heart, by force, by hand, by post/fax/e-mail. But: by phone=on the phone, by car=in one’s car.

100. I’ve just learnt about/of his death (=some news). - I’ve just learnt about (NOT of) the history of China. Don’t ask/enquire him about his private life (=getting information).I’m phoning to ask/ enquire you about/ after Mrs. Brown. She is in ward 4(=about one’s health). - He finished the drink quickly and asked (NOT enquire) for (NOT after/about) another (=order). I want to enquire into the cause of the accident (= investigate).

101. I think a lot about/of him (=process), because I’m crazy about him. -  I don’t think a lot of (NOT about) him (=opinion).  I’m thinking of selling my motor-bike (=goal). - I can’t just think of where I’ve put my glasses (=bad memory). 102. I heard about/of this restaurant through Pam (= new knowledge). - Have you heard about (NOT of) the match (=news)? - I want to give him some money, but he won’t hear of (NOT about) it (=refuse to hear). Have you heard from (NOT about/of) Dave lately (=communication)?

103. We laugh at it whenever we see it (=about the present). - We laugh about it whenever wethink of it (= about the past). I agree with him about it (= two people have the same opinion) and I agree to his proposals (=allow), so we’ve agreed on (=decision) what to do. - What I agree about (= more than two people have the same opinion) is that we should worktogether.

104. He doesn’t care about/for (= like) her. Would you care for a cup of (NOT about- proposal) coffee? I don’t care how much it costs (NOT care about how…-NO prepositions before if, how, what when). I’ve been wondering/thinking about visiting Italy. - John has looked tired recently and I have started to wonder (NOT think) about (=worry) his health. You don’t worry about anything and I wonder at (=surprised) your way of living.

105. The increase in house prices points to (=suggests) an upturn in the economy. She pointed the knife at me (=aim) and started to laugh at me.

106. She had to let out her dress (= make it larger), because she had put on weight. The company debts were mounting up (=increasing). Tommy has fallen over again. Will you help him up (=get him up)? Do you think he will really go through with his threat (=do it)? They have sold out of washing powder at the supermarket (= it had all been sold). She followed out (=carried out) the instructions precisely. She told the children off for stealing her apples (=scold). I’m afraid he met with the accident (=got in a crush). Don’t forget to pull the door to (=close slightly) when you go out. He really looks up to his older brother(=proud of). She’s cut on eating too much salt (=reduce). May I help you on with your coat (=put on). Don’t try to talk me out of the plan (=dissuade).

107. Phrasal verbs-VERB+Particle+NOUN phrase: call on (=ask), check into (=investigate), flick through (=read quickly), result from (= happens because of), see through (=know the reality). Call on me (NOT call me on) if you need some help.

108. Phrasal verbs-VERB+NOUN phrase+ Particle: invite somebody out (=for a walk), order somebody about (=give orders), tell somebody apart (=to differ). I couldn’t tell the twins apart (NOT tell apart the twins).    

109. Phrasal verbs- VERB+Particle+NOUN phrase OR VERB+NOUN phrase + Particle:  

drink up (=empty), gather up (=pick up), get down (=write down), make up one’s mind (=make a decision), shoot down (=hit the aircraft), sort out (=arrange properly), throw away. He drank up the glass. =He drank the glass up.

110. Phrasal verbs-VERB+ADVERB+Preposition + NOUN Phrase: come in for (=suffer), look up to (=respect), put up with (=cope with). We are going to come in for a lot of criticism.

111. Phrasal verbs- VERB+NOUN phrase+ADVERB+Preposition: let somebody in on something (=tell the secret), put something down to something (= attribute). It’s best to put his bad mood down to his tiredness. -112. It was agreed that the match should be postponed. Other It+PASSIVE VERBS+that: accept, believe, decide, expect, hope, intend, plan, think, understand. It+PASSIVEVERBS+wh-clause: ask, decide, determine, establish, know, understand. It+ PASSIVE VERBS+ to-infinitive: agree, decide, hope, intend, plan.

113. I enjoy it when/if/that you stay with us. Other VERBS with it+that/if/wh-clause: hate, like, love, don’t mind, resent. – He finally accepted that he would never become a doctor (NOT accepted it that…). Other VERBS not used with it+that/if/wh-clause: discover, notice, predict, regret, remember.

114. Officials have said they believe it unlikely (NOT it is) that any lasting damage to the environmenthas been done. I thought it a waste of money to throw away the food. Other VERBS with it+ ADJECTIVE/NOUN + that/if/wh-clause: consider, find (discover from experience), feel.

115. We see it as insult to have received no reply to our letter. Other VERBS with it+as+noun/adjective-clause: regard, take, view. -116. Expressions with IT’S NO: it’s no secret/ surprise/ wonder/coincidence that, it’s no use/good doing something, it’s no longer+ADJECTIVE+to-infinitive.

117. Expressions with THERE’S NO: there’s no alternative/choice but to, there’s no denying that, there’s no hope/question/chance of doing something, there’s no need/reason to do something, there’s no point in doing something, there’s no doubt about.

118. Seldom do we have goods returned to us because they are faulty (NOT Seldom we do). Other negative adverbials used in INVERSION: never (before), rarely, barely/hardly/scarcely…when/ before, no sooner…than.

119. Only once did I go to the opera in the whole time I was in Italy. Other inversions with ONLY: only after/later/then/when/by/with/only in. - At no time did they actually break the rules of the game. Other INVERSIONS with NO: in no way, on no account, under/in no circumstances.-So successful/such a success was her business that Marie was able to retire at the age of50.          

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